Research

Research & Studies on High Fat (Low Carb) Diets, Salt, and Others

RECENT NEWS

NPR: 50 Years Ago, Sugar Industry Quietly Paid Scientists To Point Blame At Fat

New York Times: How The Sugar Industry Shifted The Blame To Fat 50 Years Ago

Report - National Obesity Forum (United Kingdom)

This is the report I went over in episode 46 of the podcast

SALT, BLOOD PRESSURE, HEART DISEASE

Time Magazine: Does Cutting Salt Really Improve Heart Health?

http://healthland.time.com/2011/07/07/cutting-salt-may-not-reduce-heart-attacks-or-risk-of-death/

Quote: "Although lowering dietary salt resulted in a small dip in blood pressure, the researchers found no strong evidence that it reduced rates of death in people with high or normal blood pressure. One study suggested that restricting salt in patients with congestive heart failure could even potentially increase risk of death."

Washington Post: Is the American diet too salty? Scientists challenge the longstanding government warning

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/04/06/more-scientists-doubt-salt-is-as-bad-for-you-as-the-government-says/

Quote: “The current [salt] guidelines are based on almost nothing,” said Oparil, a distinguished professor of medicine at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. “Some people really want to hang onto this belief system on salt. But they are ignoring the evidence.”

Reduced dietary salt for the prevention of cardiovascular disease

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21735439

Conclusion: Relative risks for all cause mortality in normotensives (people with normal blood pressure) and hypertensives (people with high blood pressure) showed no strong evidence of any effect of salt reduction. Cardiovascular morbidity in people with normal blood pressure or raised blood pressure at baseline also showed no strong evidence of benefit. Salt restriction increased the risk of all-cause death in those with congestive heart failure.

Dietary sodium intake and mortality

http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(97)09092-2/fulltext

Conclusion: Specifically, these results do not support current recommendations for routine reduction of sodium consumption, nor do they justify advice to increase salt intake or to decrease its concentration in the diet.

Translation: Salt doesn't seem to affect death from any cause from what we can see. So we won't say one way or the other.

So why have we been told so adamantly that salt is bad for us???

WEIGHT LOSS, HEART DISEASE

A low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-fat diet to treat obesity and hyperlipidemia (cholesterol & triglycerides)

http://annals.org/article.aspx?articleid=717451

Conclusion: Over 24 weeks, a low-carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet program led to greater weight loss, reduction in serum triglyceride level, and increase in HDL cholesterol level compared with a low-fat diet. These effects on weight loss and serum triglyceride level are similar to those in 4 randomized, controlled trials of the low-carbohydrate diet

The effects of a low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet and a low-fat diet on mood, hunger, and other self-reported symptoms

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17228046

Conclusion: Symptoms of negative affect and hunger improved to a greater degree in patients following an LCKD (Low Carb Ketogenic Diet) compared with those following an LFD. Whether these symptom changes explain the greater short-term weight loss generally experienced by LCKD followers deserves further research.

Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (VLCK) and low-fat diets (LF) on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC538279/

Conclusion: Individual responses clearly show the majority of men and women experience greater weight and fat loss on a VLCK than a LF diet.

A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet for obesity

http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa022207

Conclusion: The low-carbohydrate diet produced a greater weight loss (absolute difference, approximately 4 percent) than did the conventional diet for the first six months, but the differences were not significant at one year. The low-carbohydrate diet was associated with a greater improvement in some risk factors for coronary heart disease.

A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity

http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa022637

Conclusion: Severely obese subjects with a high prevalence of diabetes or the metabolic syndrome lost more weight during six months on a carbohydrate-restricted diet than on a calorie- and fat-restricted diet, with a relative improvement in insulin sensitivity and triglyceride levels, even after adjustment for the amount of weight lost.

Effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factor in overweight adolescents

http://www.jpeds.com/article/S0022-3476(02)40206-5/abstract?cc=y=

Conclusion: The Low Carb diet appears to be an effective method for short-term weight loss in overweight adolescents and does not harm the lipid profile.

A randomized trial comparing a very low carbohydrate diet and a calorie-restricted low fat diet on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy women

http://press.endocrine.org/doi/full/10.1210/jc.2002-021480

Conclusion: The low-carb group lost more weight (approx 2 times as much) and had significant reductions in blood triglycerides. HDL improved slightly in both groups.

The national cholesterol education program (NCEP) diet vs a diet lower in carbohydrates and higher in protein and monounsaturated fat

http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=217514

Conclusion: Compared with the NCEP diet, the MLC diet, which is lower in total carbohydrates but higher in complex carbohydrates, protein, and monounsaturated fat, caused significantly greater weight loss over 12 weeks. Triglycerides in the low carb group decreased by 42 mg/dl compared to 15.3 mg/dl in the low fat group.

Short-term effects of severe dietary carbohydrate-restriction advice in Type 2 diabetes

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1464-5491.2005.01760.x/abstract

Conclusion: Weight loss was greater in the low-carbohydrate (LC) group and cholesterol : high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio improved.

Effect of 6-month adherence to a very low carbohydrate diet program

http://www.amjmed.com/article/S0002-9343(02)01129-4/fulltext

Conclusion: Serum total cholesterol level decreased 11 ± 26 mg/dL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level decreased 10 ± 25 mg/dL, triglyceride level decreased 56 ± 45 mg/dL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level increased 10 ± 8 mg/dL, and the cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio decreased 0.9 ± 0.6 units.

Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease

http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/early/2010/01/13/ajcn.2009.27725.abstract

Conclusion: A meta-analysis of prospective epidemiologic studies showed that there is no significant evidence for concluding that dietary saturated fat is associated with an increased risk of CHD or CVD.

Low carbohydrate diets improve atherogenic dyslipidemia even in the absence of weight loss

http://nutritionandmetabolism.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1743-7075-3-24

Conclusion: As such, Krauss et al. [1] provides one of the strongest arguments to date for CR (carbohydrate restriction) as a fundamental approach to diet, especially for treating atherogenic dyslipidemia (problems with blood lipids aka cholesterol 7 triglycerides).

COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE

The Effects of Beta-Hydroxybutyrate on Cognition

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15123336

Conclusion: Higher ketone values were associated with greater improvement in paragraph recall with MCT treatment relative to placebo across all subjects (P=0.02)

Dietary ketosis enhances memory in mild cognitive impairment

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21130529/

Conclusion: The reduction of CMRglc (rate at whichglucose is used by the brain) in both brain regions correlates linearly by ∼9% for each 1 mmol/L increase of total plasma ketone bodies (0.3 to 6.3 mmol/L). Together with our meta-analysis, these data revealed that the degree and duration of ketosis has a major role in determining the corresponding change in CMRglc with ketosis.

Translation: The more ketones you have, the less glucose your brain uses. Together with the 2 studies above, it shows greater mental performance while the brain is running on ketones as opposed to glucose.

Increased plasma ketone bodies resulted in a corresponding reduction in cerebral metabolic rates of glucose:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23736643

Conclusion: Together with our meta-analysis, these data revealed that the degree and duration of ketosis has a major role in determining the corresponding change in CMRglc with ketosis.

Translation: Same as above

Under conditions of ketosis, glucose consumption is decreased in the cortex and cerebellum:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19227486

Conclusion: These data indicate that, under conditions of ketosis, glucose consumption is decreased in the cortex and cerebellum by about 10% per each mM of plasma ketone bodies.

Translation: Same as above

BRAIN PROTECTION

Neuroprotective and disease-modifying effects of the ketogenic diet

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2367001/

Conclusion: A wide variety of evidence suggests that the ketogenic diet could have beneficial disease-modifying effects in epilepsy and also in a broad range of neurological disorders characterized by death of neurons..... It has long been recognized that the ketogenic diet is associated with increased circulating levels of ketone bodies, which represent a more efficient fuel in the brain, and there may also be increased numbers of brain mitochondria. It is plausible that the enhanced energy production capacity resulting from these effects would confer neurons with greater ability to resist metabolic challenges.

Brain, Livin’ On Ketones – A Molecular Neuroscience Look At The Ketogenic Diet

http://www.neurorexia.com/2013/03/24/brain-livin-on-ketones-a-molecular-neuroscience-look-at-the-ketogenic-diet/

Nutrition and Traumatic Brain Injury: Improving Acute and Subacute Health Outcomes in Military Personnel (2011)

http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=13121&page=140

Clinical review: Ketones and brain injury

http://ccforum.com/content/15/2/219

INSULIN SENSITIVITY & DIABETES

Treatment of diabetes and diabetic complications with a ketogenic diet

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23680948

Conclusion: Accumulating evidence suggests that low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets are safe and effective to reduce glycemia in diabetic patients without producing significant cardiovascular risks. Most of these studies have been carried out specifically restricting carbohydrates, which tends to lead to increased protein intake, thus reducing the ketosis. However, diets that limit protein as well as carbohydrates, entailing a composition very high in fat, appear even more effective to reduce glucose and whole-body glucose metabolism in humans. In animal models, low-carbohydrate, high-protein diets do not produce ketosis or reduce glycemia but rather cause obesity. However, limiting both protein and carbohydrates as in a classic ketogenic diet remarkably reduces blood glucose in animal models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and reverses diabetic nephropathy. Future studies should assess if ketogenic diets would be effective to reverse diabetic complications in humans.

Long-term ketogenic diet reduces blood glucose:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2716748/

Conclusion: The present study shows the beneficial effects of a long-term ketogenic diet. It significantly reduced the body weight and body mass index of the patients. Furthermore, it decreased the level of triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and blood glucose, and increased the level of HDL cholesterol. Administering a ketogenic diet for a relatively longer period of time did not produce any significant side effects in the patients. Therefore, the present study confirms that it is safe to use a ketogenic diet for a longer period of time than previously demonstrated.

Short-term effects of severe dietary carbohydrate-restriction advice in Type 2 diabetes

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1464-5491.2005.01760.x/abstract

Conclusion: Weight loss was greater in the low-carbohydrate (LC) group and cholesterol : high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio improved.

CELLULAR HEALTH, LONGEVITY, & AGING

Ketogenic Diet Could Delay the Effects of Aging

http://www.medindia.net/news/ketogenic-diet-could-delay-the-effects-of-aging-111146-1.htm

Scientists see a Ketogenic Diet for Aging and Longevity

http://longevitycentresofamerica.wordpress.com/2012/12/09/scientists-see-potential-in-ketogenic-diet-for-aging-longevity/

Ketosis cleans our cells

http://www.proteinpower.com/drmike/ketones-and-ketosis/ketosis-cleans-our-cells/

CANCER

Effects of a ketogenic diet on tumor metabolism and nutritional status in pediatric oncology patients: two case reports.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7790697

Conclusion: Within 7 days of initiating the ketogenic diet, blood glucose levels declined to low-normal levels and blood ketones were elevated twenty to thirty fold. Results of PET scans indicated a 21.8% average decrease in glucose uptake at the tumor site in both subjects. One patient exhibited significant clinical improvements in mood and new skill development during the study. She continued the ketogenic diet for an additional twelve months, remaining free of disease progression.

Cancer Cells Can’t Live Using Ketones As A Fuel

http://www.naturalhealth365.com/stop_cancer/ketogenic_diet.htmlhttp://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2013/03/10/ketogenic-diet.aspx

Ketogenic Diet for Cancer – ClinicalTrial

http://coconutketones.blogspot.com/2013/01/ketogenic-diet-for-cancer-clinical-trial.html

IN THE NEWS

Time Magazine: The Truth About Fat

http://time.com/2861540/fat-and-carbs-diet-guidelines/

Japanese Government Drops Cholesterol Limit in Health Guidance

http://blogs.wsj.com/japanrealtime/2015/06/17/japanese-government-drops-cholesterol-limit-in-health-guidance/

Sweden Becomes First Western Nation to Reject Low-fat Diet Dogma in Favor of Low-carb High-fat Nutrition

http://healthimpactnews.com/2013/sweden-becomes-first-western-nation-to-reject-low-fat-diet-dogma-in-favor-of-low-carb-high-fat-nutrition/#sthash.n0Aj5xPb.dpuf

Time Magazine: Does Cutting Salt Really Improve Heart Health?

http://healthland.time.com/2011/07/07/cutting-salt-may-not-reduce-heart-attacks-or-risk-of-death/

Quote: "Although lowering dietary salt resulted in a small dip in blood pressure, the researchers found no strong evidence that it reduced rates of death in people with high or normal blood pressure. One study suggested that restricting salt in patients with congestive heart failure could even potentially increase risk of death."

Washington Post: Is the American diet too salty? Scientists challenge the longstanding government warning

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/04/06/more-scientists-doubt-salt-is-as-bad-for-you-as-the-government-says/

Quote: “The current [salt] guidelines are based on almost nothing,” said Oparil, a distinguished professor of medicine at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. “Some people really want to hang onto this belief system on salt. But they are ignoring the evidence.”

MORE DOCTORS AGREE

Dr Oz: Stephen Sinatra M.D. (Cardiologist) & Dr. Jon Bowden PhD (Nutrition) - 3 Part segment

Video: Is Everything You Know About Cholesterol Wrong? Part 1

Video: Is Everything You Know About Cholesterol Wrong? Part 2

Video: Is Everything You Know About Cholesterol Wrong? Part 3

Book: The Great Cholesterol Myth

David Diamond PhD (Cognitive & Neural Sciences)

Video: How Bad Science and Big Business Created The Obesity Epidemic

(Scroll to bottom of page for video)

Discusses how the cholesterol theory came about, and what really causes heart disease

Walter Willet M.D. (Harvard University) & Dr. Arne Astrup M.D. (University of Copenhagen)

Video: Saturated Fat and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)

Click on the “Video + Document” button to see the presentation slides

Notable quotes:

- 9:50 min mark “When you replace saturated fats with carbohydrates you actually get an increase of coronary heart disease”

- 16:00 min mark “No real evidence that saturated fat itself is promoting obesity”

David Perlmutter M.D (Neurology)

Video: Saturated Fat – The Healthy Choice

Video: Fat, Carbs, and Alzheimer’s Disease

Donald Miller M.D. (Cardiac Surgeon)

Video: Enjoy Eating Saturated Fats, They’re Good for You

Stephen Phinney M.D., PhD (Nutritional Biochemistry) & Dr. Jeff Volek R.D., PhD, (Kinesiology)

Multiple videos of their 30 year research on low carb, high fat diets

Peter Attia M.D. (Surgeon)

Video: The Straight Dope on Cholesterol

Blog: The Eating Academy Blog

Uffe Ravnskov M.D., PhD (Neurology)

Book: Fat and Cholesterol Are Good For You

Michael Anchors M.D., PhD (Biochemistry)

Book: Medical Myths Doctors Believe

Mark Hyman M.D. (General Practice & ER)

Video: Statins Can Cause Damage to Mitochondria

Blog: Eggs Don’t Cause Heart Attacks – Sugar Does

Blog: How To Work With Your Doctor To Get What You Need

The blood tests you need, and how to interpret them

Malcolm Kendrick M.D. (General Practice)

Book: The Great Cholesterol Con

Ron Rosedale M.D. (Metabolic & Nutritional Medicine)

Blog: Cholesterol Is NOT The Cause Of Heart Disease

Chris Masterjohn PhD (Nutritional Science)

Blog: ChrisMasterjohn Blog

Videos: Why Animal Fats are Good For You

Part 1

Part 2

Part 3

Part 4

Part 5

WHERE DID "FAT = BAD" COME FROM?

Video 1: Where it all started

Video 2: What Modern Science Shows

Cholesterol Resources

How To Work With Your Doctor

Video 3: What DOES Cause Heart Disease?